Os novos medidores de energia vão detalhar e informar o consumo em tempo real

A maior parte dos moradores de uma cidade conhece bem uma conta de luz e o relógio que faz a sua medição. São equipamentos que registram o consumo de energia elétrica em uma residência, indústria ou estabelecimento comercial, para que um colaborador da distribuidora possa, a cada mês, fazer a leitura do consumo em quilowatt-hora naquele endereço. Este é um processo conhecido pela maioria dos cidadãos. Mas a chegada de novas tecnologias começa a mudar esse sistema para melhor. Equipamentos mais inteligentes, capazes de fazer medições em tempo real e com um nível maior de detalhamento de consumo torna-se realidade para o cidadão, trazendo assim mais conforto e controle sobre os gastos.

Os novos aparelhos são conhecidos com o smart meters, ou relógios inteligentes. A AES já trouxe a tecnologia para o Brasil, e iniciou os testes dentro de um projeto piloto na cidade de Barueri, na grande São Paulo. Ao todo, serão utilizados cerca de 62 mil smart meters, num esforço para cobrir 80% das residências do município.

“Visualmente, eles se parecem com um medidor convencional”, explica Antonio Almeida, gerente de tecnologia da distribuição da AES Eletropaulo. “Mas dentro do aparelho, temos tudo o que precisamos para realizar uma medição avançada.” Assim, é possível fazer um monitoramento contínuo do consumo elétrico, em vez de leituras mensais. As informações são transmitidas para roteadores por uma rede de comunicação híbrida, com tecnologia de rádio RF Mesh e PLC, que utiliza a própria rede elétrica para fazer o tráfego de dados. “O sinal que for mais rápido leva primeiro as informações”, diz Almeida sobre a razão de um sistema duplo. Depois, a partir dos roteadores, os dados seguem para a central da AES por meio de redes 3G ou WiMAX.

As vantagens para o cliente incluem um maior controle do consumo, que poderá ser acompanhado em tempo real por meio de um portal online. Em vez de intuir até a chegada da conta, e fazer o acompanhamento das oscilações no comparativo mês a mês, será possível olhar para os números em tempo real. Para a empresa distribuidora, o sistema garante um controle maior da rede, que por sua vez leva a um abastecimento mais constante e menos sujeito a falhas. Os problemas ficam mais fáceis de se solucionar, também. “Os medidores terão alarmes de falta de energia”, diz Almeida. “Assim, saberemos em tempo real quando houver uma queda, e podemos enviar equipes para corrigir o problema. Além disso, os relógios inteligentes auxiliarão no combate a fraudes e no monitoramento de possíveis sobrecargas.”

Mas os smart meters são apenas uma peça de um sistema muito maior de redes elétricas inteligentes que a AES está implementando, os chamados smart grids. O projeto tem como objetivo estabelecer as bases de uma malha de fornecimento de eletricidade mais moderna, com equipamentos como detectores de falta e de reconfiguração da rede, todos projetados para diminuir e minimizar o impacto de eventuais falhas. As ações em Barueri incluem todas essas novidades. O sistema de comunicação e tráfego de dados também faz parte desse grande ecossistema conectado.

Em última análise, explica Almeida, os smart grids servirão de base para a implementação de uma plataforma maior de Internet das Coisas, a tendência de conectar diversos dispositivos, de eletrodomésticos até postes de luz, à web. Esse é um trabalho de longo prazo, mas que abre uma vasta fronteira de inovação. Startups de tecnologia podem, por exemplo, desenvolver soluções próprias. “Podemos ter semáforos inteligentes, iluminação e até controle de lixo por meio dessa rede de comunicação”, diz Almeida. “Essa é a base da Internet das Coisas, um conjunto de dispositivos conversando entre si e agregando diferentes serviços.”

Para fins de demonstração, a equipe da AES responsável pelo projeto vai construir um showroom, uma casa modelo equipada com essa tecnologia em Barueri, onde os interessados poderão entender melhor seu funcionamento ao vê-la em ação. Aos poucos, todas as peças necessárias para a montagem desse grande quebra-cabeças tecnológico vão sendo posicionadas. E tudo começa pela residência, na evolução do velho relógio medidor de energia.

 

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