Energia renovável: futuro do Brasil

O mundo vem passando por uma fase de transição nos diversos tipos de energia que se utiliza. Se antes o petróleo, as usinas hidrelétricas e as nucleares dominavam a produção de energia elétrica, no futuro a tendência provavelmente não será essa.

O que vemos são cada vez mais pesquisas e inovações voltadas principalmente para fontes renováveis, como turbinas eólicas, painéis solares e energia produzida através de biomassa. Justamente por isso, o Brasil possui um potencial extremamente animador para estar na liderança desta nova era, uma vez que o país possui uma incidência solar muito alta e uma costa com fortes deslocamentos de massas de ar, por exemplo.

Com isso, a aposta dos especialistas é a de que a toda a indústria nacional envolvendo fontes renováveis alavanquem um crescimento considerável nos próximos anos.

Para se ter uma noção, segundo dados do Balanço Energético Nacional, entre o período de 2005 até 2014, a produção em solo brasileiro desse tipo de energia obteve um acréscimo de cerca de 145%. Já os métodos convencionais, apesar de também terem crescido, tiveram um aumento mais modesto: as hidrelétricas 10%, o petróleo 38% e o gás natural 80%.

Um grande aliado na implementação em massa da energia renovável no Brasil foi a Conferência do Clima COP 21, ocorrida no final de 2016. Nela, o governo se comprometeu a reduzir em 37% as emissões de gases até 2025 e 43% até 2030.

Para conseguir alcançar esta meta, o governo pretendendo elevar para 24% a fatia de energias renováveis, que em 2014 se encontrava em apenas 9%.  O prazo para a conclusão dessa tarefa é 2030, porém é importante desde já que os primeiros passos comecem a ser dados.

“Hoje, a média dessas novas energias renováveis na matriz mundial está em torno de 6%. É claro que alguns países têm participação maior, como a Alemanha (13,4%)”, disse Maurício Tolmasquim, presidente da Empresa de Pesquisa Energética (EPE).

A energia solar está um estágio atrás da eólica, mas tem atraído investidores. Com a realização de leilões específicos para a fonte, o Brasil conseguiu dar o pontapé inicial na ampliação da fonte renovável, que ainda é incipiente – em 2014, o país tinha apenas 15 megawatt (MW) de energia solar instalada. Nos leilões, entretanto, foram contratados mais de 2,5 mil MW.

Apesar de ainda estar em um processo de desenvolvido mais atrasado do que a eólica, a energia solar é vista como um potencial mais interessante no ponto de vista de atrair investidores. O Brasil já deu alguns passos importantes, como a realização de leilões. Em 2014, o país possuía somente 15 MW de produção de energia solar, mas o potencial com os atuais leilões chegam a 2500 MW!

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