Dessalinização com grafeno já é realidade

Uma incrível descoberta de um grupo de cientistas da Universidade de Manchester vai mudar a forma de dessalinização da água.

A descoberta trata-se de um filtro de grafeno que poderia ser usado para remover o sal da água e fornecer água potável para milhões de pessoas.

O estudo foi publicado na revista Nature Nanotechnology. Eles pesquisaram a possibilidade de usar membranas de grafeno, camadas finas do material, para filtragem de água.

Anteriormente, os pesquisadores descobriram que a fabricação dessas membranas resultaram em torná-los inchados. Esta última pesquisa, no entanto, foi capaz de evitar esse inchaço em ambos os lados da membrana para parar a expansão.

É bem diferente do grafeno de camada única que foi exibido em 2004, também pela Universidade de Manchester. Esta pesquisa envolveu o óxido de grafeno, que é consideravelmente mais fácil de produzir o feito pela oxidação no laboratório.

Controlando precisamente o tamanho dos poros nas membranas, era possível separar os sais comuns da água e torná-los seguros para beber. Pequenos capilares nas membranas de óxido de grafeno impedem que o sal flua, deixando passar a água.

Este tipo de grafeno pode tornar-se mais facilmente permeável, permitindo que sejam feitos furos menores do que um nanômetro, tamanho necessário para parar o fluxo de sal.

“Demonstramos também que existem possibilidades realistas de ampliar a abordagem descrita e produzir membranas à base de grafeno com tamanhos de filtros convencionais”, disse o professor Rahul Nair, da Universidade de Manchester, e co-autor do estudo, em comunicado.

As Nações Unidas estimam que em 2025, 14% da população mundial terá que lidar com a escassez de água, em grande parte devido às mudanças climáticas. Mas a filtragem de água é notoriamente difícil, deixando os processos de dessalinização caros. O óxido de grafeno pode fornecer uma solução bem mais acessível.

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