Como instalar energia solar e se tornar um produtor de energia?

Uma pesquisa da consultoria Accenture aponta que oito em cada dez brasileiros têm interesse em produzir a própria eletricidade de forma autossuficiente. Isso significa que 80% da população gostaria de se ver livre do modelo tradicional de produção e distribuição de energia. Mas como se tornar independente? A geração distribuída é uma boa alternativa.

O sistema tradicional é composto por grandes unidades produtoras, como as hidrelétricas e termelétricas. São elas que geram a energia que, em seguida, percorre milhares de quilômetros em redes de transmissão até chegar aos centros de consumo, de onde é distribuída para os habitantes.

Mas, com o avanço das energias renováveis, como solar e eólica, os consumidores têm ganhado independência. “Uma pessoa pode produzir energia em sua residência, enviar a carga para a rede local e ainda ser recompensada por isso”, explica o professor José Simões Moreira, coordenador do laboratório de sistemas energéticos alternativos da Escola Politécnica da Universidade de São Paulo (Poli-USP).

Benefícios
A novidade permite o redesenho do sistema tradicional para um modelo de geração distribuída. Com isso, diminui-se a necessidade de o governo investir na construção de usinas e de cabos de distribuição, uma vez que a energia é produzida mais próximo do consumidor. E traz até vantagens ecológicas, pois, com a proximidade, grandes obras como linhas de transmissão que cruzam a Amazônia poderiam ser reduzidas ou, até mesmo, evitadas.

“O Brasil perde em torno de 17% da energia produzida por ano. A maior parte disso é proveniente de perdas na transmissão, e quem paga por isso é o consumidor”, diz Simões.

Para Agostinho Pascalicchio, professor de engenharia elétrica da Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, a principal vantagem dos sistemas de geração distribuída é ter acesso a uma fonte de maior qualidade, pois o pequeno produtor precisa seguir uma série de especificações da Agência Nacional de Energia Elétrica (Aneel).

“No Brasil, é comum encontrarmos lugares onde a energia fornecida não tem a tensão adequada. Isso acontece, por exemplo, quando vemos uma lâmpada em casa que fica mais fraca do que deveria. Isso é mortal para algumas máquinas e impede indústrias de se instalarem em vários locais do país”, afirma.

Como produzir sua própria energia
Residências, condomínios e indústrias podem aplicar a geração distribuída de energia em suas redes. Veja o caso da Ambient, empresa responsável pelo tratamento do esgoto doméstico de Ribeirão Preto, interior de São Paulo, há mais de 20 anos. Em 2009, a companhia instalou dois moto-geradores que consomem o biogás gerado a partir do tratamento do esgoto como combustível.

Hoje, a empresa é capaz de gerar 1,5 megawatt de energia, cerca de metade do necessário para a operação da estação. O calor dos escapamentos ainda é recuperado para aquecer os digestores de lodo, o que melhora a eficiência da degradação da matéria orgânica.

É preciso seguir alguns passos para produzir sua própria energia e se conectar à rede de distribuição. Como o processo é regulamentado pela Aneel, é necessário consultar a concessionária da região, responsável por controlar os requisitos técnicos e aprovar a solicitação.

Em São Paulo, por exemplo, deve-se entrar em contato com a Eletropaulo. “Outra maneira simples consiste em procurar empresas que vendem os equipamentos produtores de energia, pois elas fazem essa consulta e agilizam o processo”, aconselha Simões.

E o que sobra?
A Aneel também criou o Sistema de Compensação de Energia Elétrica, que autoriza a transformação do excedente em créditos, que podem ser trocados com a distribuidora local e reduzir o valor da fatura de eletricidade. Para isso, o consumidor precisa ter um sistema de monitoramento da sua rede.

Isso pode ser feito com ajuda de medidores inteligentes que, ao contrário dos relógios analógicos, avaliam a rede de forma mais rápida e precisa. “O equipamento registra quanto o consumidor manda de energia e quanto usa do sistema tradicional. Se ele receber mais do que enviou, paga a diferença para a distribuidora. Caso contrário, ganha créditos na próxima fatura”, explica Simões.

Em março deste ano, novas regras foram adicionadas e o prazo de validade de uso dos créditos passou de 36 para 60 meses. Além disso, é possível abater uma fatura de outro local que esteja na área de atendimento da distribuidora, como o de uma filial. Segundo o professor, apesar de as mudanças ajudarem na aplicação do novo modelo de geração de energia, ele ainda precisa avançar para incentivar ainda mais a adesão das pessoas.

“Uma família consome, em média, 400 quilowatts-hora por mês. Para atender a essa necessidade com energia solar, por exemplo, seria preciso investir entre 20 000 reais e 25 000 reais. Mas digamos que essa família tenha um terreno grande. Em vez de ela investir mais para produzir energia além do que precisa, vai apenas cobrir seus gastos e garantir o fim da conta de luz. Se o sistema pagasse pela energia adicional, em vez de apenas fornecer créditos, haveria um incentivo maior para a instalação dos equipamentos”, afirma.

Segundo Roberto Falco, gerente sênior da Accenture, o retorno do investimento em placas fotovoltaicas demora cerca de dez anos. “Mas essas tecnologias estão cada vez mais baratas. Os preços ainda não se estabilizaram, e o histórico dos valores indica uma curva contínua de redução. Portanto, o tempo de retorno de investimento deve diminuir nos próximos anos.”

 

Está procurando por sistemas de energia solar? Entre em contato com a Alpha Engenharia, nossa parceira que realiza a instalação desses equipamentos.

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