Cientistas japoneses quebram recorde de eficiência de painéis solares

Pesquisadores do Japão estabeleceram um novo recorde para a eficiência dos painéis solares produzidos em massa, o que significa que ainda mais energia solar pode agora ser convertida em eletricidade. O registro de eficiência dos painéis solares agora está em 26,6% – quebrando o recorde anterior estabelecido em 2015.

“Melhorar a eficiência de fotoconversão de células solares de silício é crucial para promover a implantação de eletricidade renovável”, explica a equipe da empresa japonesa Kaneko. “Este resultado confirma o forte potencial dos painéis fotovoltaicos de silício”.

Para atingir este nível de eficiência, a equipe colocou camadas de silício dentro de células individuais para minimizar as chamadas “bandas proibidas”, onde os elétrons não podem existir e a luz solar é desperdiçada.

Outros cientistas tentaram este procedimento antes, mas os pesquisadores da Kaneko melhoraram a técnica e conseguiram atingir esse marco de 26,6%. A equipe otimizou sua configuração colocando eletrodos de baixa resistência na parte traseira da célula, longe do lado exposto, maximizando o número de fótons que poderiam ser coletados na frente.

A coleta de fótons se tornou ainda mais eficiente através da implantação do silício amorfo e camadas anti-reflexo em cima, para proteger os componentes celulares e reduzir a quantidade de luz solar perdida.

Embora os painéis orientados para a pesquisa tenham alcançado maiores eficiências – mais de 40% em alguns casos – este é um novo recorde de painéis viáveis ​​para uso doméstico, embora nem sempre seja fácil dizer quais tecnologias são viáveis ​​para painéis de consumidores.

A definição do que é amigável ao consumidor está sempre mudando, à medida que os processos de produção melhoram e os custos despencam, então manter o controle pode ser complicado. Mas a conclusão é que estamos fazendo progresso.

Neste caso específico, estamos falando de células de painéis solares cristalinos baseados em silício, que têm uma eficiência teórica de cerca de 29%, com base nas melhores estimativas dos cientistas. Estas células tornaram-se o padrão da indústria graças à sua fiabilidade e relativamente baixo custo.

A equipe está agora explorando os passos práticos necessários para tornar a técnica que eles conseguiram no laboratório viável para a produção em massa, mas parece que não demorará muito para que possamos aproveitar ainda mais a energia do Sol – e isso só pode ser uma coisa boa.

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