As maiores curiosidades por trás das obras do Maracanã

Todo mundo conhece ou já ouviu falar sobre o estádio do Maracanã. Pouca gente sabe, contudo, a história por trás desse gigante da engenharia. As obras da sua construção começaram em 2 de agosto de 1948. Antes disso, o espaço onde o estádio foi erguido era um terreno do Derby Club onde eram disputadas corridas de cavalos.

Construído basicamente em concreto armado, foi um desafio na época concretar toda a estrutura. Utilizou muita mão de obra e foi uma das obras que registrou um grande número de acidentes. Devido ao alto custo na locação ou compra de guindastes, a obra teve que contar com movimentações realizadas por tração animal e humana, tornando a obra mais exaustiva e mais demorada. Além do desafio de construir uma estrutura dessa proporção, a obra sofreu com uma briga política que acontecia no Rio de Janeiro.

O projeto vencedor previa um estádio para 155.250 pessoas, sendo 93 mil lugares com assento, 31 mil lugares para pessoas em pé, 30 mil cadeiras cativas, 500 lugares para a tribuna de honra e 250 para camarotes. O estádio ainda contaria com tribuna de imprensa com espaço para vinte cabines de transmissão, trinta e dois grupos de sanitários e trinta e dois bares. No total, a área coberta do estádio atingiria 150 mil m², com altura total de 24m. As obras iniciaram-se em 2 de agosto de 1948, data do lançamento da pedra fundamental. Trabalharam na construção cerca de 1.500 homens, tendo se somado a estes mais 2.000 nos últimos meses de trabalho. Apesar de ter entrado em uso em 1950, as obras só ficaram completas em 1965. Os arquitetos responsáveis pela elaboração do projeto foram Waldir Ramos, Raphael Galvão, Oscar Valderano, Orlando Azevedo, Pedro Paulo Bernardes Bastos e Antônio Dias Carneiro Feldman.

Em seu projeto original, o Maracanã tinha seu formato oval, medindo 317 metros em seu eixo maior e 279 metros no menor. Media 32 metros de altura, o que corresponde a um prédio de seis andares, e a distância entre o espectador mais distante o centro do campo era de 126 metros. A cobertura protegia parcialmente as arquibancadas em toda a sua circunferência. Na cobertura foram montados os refletores, que funcionavam a vapor de mercúrio. De 1962 até as reformas realizadas na década de 2000, a medida do gramado era de 110 por 75 metros. Havia um fosso que separava o campo das cadeiras inferiores que media três metros de profundidade com bordas em desnível. O acesso ao gramado dava-se por meio de quatro túneis subterrâneos que começavam nos vestiários. Existiam cinco vestiários no estádio, sendo utilizados normalmente apenas três, um para cada time que disputa uma partida de futebol e outro para a arbitragem.

A inauguração do Maracanã aconteceu no dia 16 de junho de 1950. O jogo foi entre as seleções carioca e paulista. São Paulo venceu por 3 a 1, mas o primeiro gol da história do Estádio foi marcado pelo carioca Didi, que jogava no Fluminense e na Seleção Brasileira. Todavia, na noite anterior à partida oficial, houve uma pelada entre os engenheiros e os operários que trabalharam na construção do estádio. Quando foi inaugurado, o Maracanã era o maior estádio do mundo e comportava quase 200 mil pessoas.

Por ser um estádio gigantesco, foi fechado diversas vezes para reforma  afim de receber solenidades como o Mundial de Clubes de 2000, abertura da Copa do Mundo de Futebol, Jogos Pan Americanos e mais recentemente os Jogos Olímpicos.

Atualmente o Maracanã tem capacidade de 78.838 pessoas e conta com gramado natural. Para a Copa do Mundo de 2014, foi executado um projeto que substituiu a cobertura original do estádio, de concreto, que foi inteiramente demolida. A nova membrana tensionada cobre 95% dos assentos. Além disso, o tom acinzentado voltou a ser a principal cor externa do estádio, que passou a possuir um único nível de assentos em substituição aos dois anéis originais. As novas cadeiras seguem um padrão de cores, com o amarelo próximo do campo, seguido por tons de azul e branco distribuídos quase aleatoriamente em setores mesclados.

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