A Alemanha transformou uma mina de carvão em uma bateria de energia renovável

AAlemanha está transformando uma de suas minas de carvão mais antigas em uma gigantesca “estação bateria” que armazenará energia hidroelétrica e fornecerá energia para cerca de 400 mil casas, com a esperança de lançar instalações similares em todo o país nos próximos anos.

Depois de meio século de serviço, a mina de carvão Prosper-Haniel, no noroeste do país, deve ser encerrada em 2018, quando a tarefa de a converter em uma instalação de energia limpa começará. Pesquisadores de várias universidades alemãs estão trabalhando com empresas de engenharia privadas e o governo no projeto. Juntos, estão realizando estudos de viabilidade no lugar desde 2012. Se o projeto for um sucesso, mais minas como essa poderiam ser adaptadas.

A mina de 600 metros de profundidade fornece algo que a área não tem naturalmente – elevação. Isso é crucial se você quiser criar uma planta de bombeamento de armazenamento como este. O fluxo de água abastece turbinas e gera eletricidade, com a água bombeada novamente durante períodos de baixa demanda. “Em regiões como a região da Renânia ou do Ruhr, a falta de declives na paisagem não fornece as diferenças de altura necessárias [para a energia hidroelétrica]”, explica o site do projeto.

Quanto à parte de bateria da equação, a água poderia ser bombeada para fora da mina durante um dia particularmente ensolarado ou ventoso, efetivamente armazenando a energia como um volume de água no reservatório superior até que fosse necessário. Há cerca de 26 quilômetros de poços no complexo, com o potencial de ter um milhão de metros cúbicos de água fluindo através deles, ajudados pelas forças da gravidade.

Embora as instalações de armazenamento hidrelétrico bombeadas como essa normalmente usem mais energia do que geram, tornaram-se importante equilibrar as cargas elétricas durante os horários de pico, quando outras fontes de energia renováveis ​​– como a luz do Sol e o vento – podem não estar disponíveis. Se a fábrica Prosper-Haniel entrar em operação conforme planejado, ajudará a região de Renânia do Norte-Vestfália a atingir seu objetivo de ter 30% de sua energia proveniente de fontes renováveis ​​até 2025, informa Brian Parkin, da Bloomberg.

Os apoiadores do projeto dizem que também irá criar novos empregos e gerar atividade econômica em uma região onde as pessoas têm tradicionalmente confiado nos combustíveis fósseis para sua subsistência. Outras conversões de minas estão atualmente sendo propostas nos EUA e já estão em andamento em uma mina de ouro abandonada na Austrália, que segue um plano similar à de Prosper-Haniel. Um benefício adicional da conversão de minas em desuso é que ela não interfere com a paisagem natural ou exige o redirecionamento de rios.

 

[fonte]

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